How Martin Gardner Bamboozled the Skeptics

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How Martin Gardner Bamboozled the Skeptics

Richard Hodgson was well-informed about techniques of deception, and he investigated Piper for 18 years on behalf of the SPR. And yet in Gardner’s essay he is mentioned only in passing, and then only as “a British psi researcher” (though Hodgson was actually an Australian) “who came to Boston in 1887 to serve as
secretary of the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR), and to edit its journal.”

Did Gardner deliberately omit this important point? Or was he so lacking in knowledge of the source material that he didn’t even know who the primary investigator in the Piper case was? The latter conclusion may be supported by another odd aspect of Gardner’s essay: he gets dates wrong.